Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints and nerves, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is much stiffer and much less flexible than muscle. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that adapts to the pushing and pulling required for mechanical movement. Bone consists of an outer layer of periosteum (subdivided into an outer fibrous & inner cellular layer), similar to cartilage, but the inner cellular layer consists of osteoprogenitor cells instead chondrogenic cells.Articular bone regions covered by hyaline cartilage do not have a periosteum. Every step in the histology process is critical, from dissection up to and including cover-slipping, especially for articular cartilage samples. While the intricate ultrastructure of articular cartilage is critical for proper function, these same properties create challenges for cartilage restoration. Articular cartilage serves as a load-bearing elastic material that is responsible for the frictionless movement of the surfaces of articulating joints. Its main function is to connect bones together. STUDY. because of the low turnover, articular cartilage is susceptible to AGEs accumulation. Following an intra-articular fracture, in addition to mechanical disruption and cartilage necrosis, the following inflammatory cytokines are released, contributing to articular damage and the eventual development of post-traumatic arthritis: occurs when laceration travels through tidemark and penetrates subchondral bone, fibrocartilage produced by undifferentiated marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Its main function is to connect bones together. Adult cartilage lacks blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves and has three types: hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage. articular cartilage) and where cartilage makes direct contact with bone (i.e. Reading time: 3 minutes. Tested Concept, (SAE07HK.93) The answer is E: Articular cartilage is composed of hyaline cartilage. Articular cartilage is the highly specialized connective tissue of diarthrodial joints. 1 Type II collagen is the most common type (95%), but other types have been identified (IV, VI, IX, X, and XI). The photomicrographs show the main features of (b) hyaline cartilage, (c) elastic cartilage, and (d) fibrocartilage. Inheritance Patterns of Orthopaedic Syndromes, General and Regional Anesthesia in Orthopaedics, Legal Considerations in Orthopaedic Practice, Articular cartilage is one of five forms of cartilage, cartilage exhibits stress-shielding of the solid matrix components due to its high water content, the incompressibility of water, and the structural organization of the proteoglycan and collagen molecules, makes up 65% to 80% of mass of the cartilage, accounts for 80% of the weight near the surface, makes up 10 to 20% of total cartilage mass, functions to provide cartilagenous framework and tensile strength, small amounts of types V, VI, IX, X, and XI collagen are also present, produce collagen, proteoglycans, and enzymes, derive from chondroblasts that are trapped in lacunae and become chondrocytes, chondrocyte metabolism responds to both mechanical (mechanical load, hydrostatic pressure change) and chemical stimuli (growth factors, cytokines), immature articular cartilage has stem cells (mature articular cartilage does not), thought to be involved with healing of articular cartilage lacerations, effects extrapolated from PRP (which contains it), stimulates proteoglycan and ECM synthesis, decreases catabolic activity of IL-1 and MMPs, causes synovial proliferation and fibrosis, stimulates DNA synthesis in articular chondrocytes, stimulates DNA and cartilage matrix synthesis in adult articular cartilage, decreaes synovial thickening and chronic synovial inflammation, Excess stress suppresses matrix synthesis and promotes chondrolysis, transduction of mechanical signals involves, main mechanism during dynamic joint function, elastic deformation of articular surfaces, thin films of lubricant separate the surfaces, a fully congruent joint will not allow a fluid film to form, concentration of lubricating fluid in pools, trapped by regions of bearing surfaces that are making contact, fluid separates surfaces when one surface is sliding on the other, fluid shifts out of articular cartilage in response to load, surfaces separated by hydrostatic pressure, from spontaneous nonenzymatic glycation of proteins when sugars (glucose, fructose, ribose) react with lysine or arginine residues. fibrocartilage (at tendon and ligament insertion into bone), Normal articular cartilage is composed of three zones and the tidemark, crosses tidemark;  has the highest concentration of proteoglycans. Science 338(6109):917–921, Marcacci M, Filardo G, Kon E (2013) Treatment of cartilage lesions: what works and why? Authors; Authors and affiliations; Stefan Nehrer; Myron Spector; Chapter. rich in fibroblasts, undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells, blood vessels, nerve and lymphatic vessels. Fibro- is found in invertebral discs, joint capsules, ligaments. For example, a mouse hind limb should be dissected well, leaving as little remaining soft and connective tissue as possible. 1 Collagen provides the tensile strength of articular cartilage. Articular cartilage serves a vital role in maintaining joint function by minimising friction and distributing load. In adults, hyaline cartilage is located in the articular surfaces of movable joints, in the walls of the respiratory tracts (nose, larynx, trachea, and bronchi ), in the costal cartilages, and in … Is a precursor of bone. 3. Tested Concept, Decreased collagen content and decreased modulus of elasticity, Increased chondroitin sulfate concentration, (OBQ04.3) What is the most likely cause of this finding? Sports Health 1(6):461–468, Pearle AD, Warren RF, Rodeo SA (2005) Basic science of articular cartilage and osteoarthritis. Note the sharp distinction between the bone underneath and the cartilage. Its ability to undergo reversible deformation depends on its structural organization, including the specific arrangement of the matrix macromolecule … When evaluating articular cartilage, look for any surface damage that has occurred from normal wear and tear or surgical models. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. • Is deep to the basal layer and separates the true articular cartilage from the deeper cartilage that is a remnant of the cartilage anlage, which participated in endochondral ossification during longitudinal growth in childhood. Cite as. The surface of hyaline cartilage is surrounded by the perichondrium, a transitional zone between cartilage and the surrounding connective tissue, but articular cartilage lacks the perichondrium. Tested Concept, Cartilage thickening in the left (ipsilateral) knee and no change in cartilage thickness in the right (contralateral) knee, Cartilage thinning in the left (ipsilateral) knee and no change in cartilage thickness in the right (contralateral) knee, Cartilage thinning in the left (ipsilateral) knee and increased cartilage thickness in the right (contralateral) knee, Increased cartilage thickness in both knees, (SAE13BS.51) Articular cartilage serves a vital role in maintaining joint function by minimising friction and distributing load. Articular Cartilage. Provides a low-friction gliding surface. 020 trachea connective tissue fibroblast plasma cell H&E Webscope Imagescope 040 trachea H&E Webscope Imagescope 040N hyaline cartilage 1.5um section H&E Webscope Imagescope 126 trachea, esophagus H&E Webscope Imagescope. Which of the following best describes the appearance of chondrocytes and orientation of collagen fibrils in the superficial zone of articular cartilage? Which of the following contributes most to the ability of hyaline cartilage to attract water? The bulk of this tissue consists of an extracellular matrix composed of … Oval isogenous groups 2. All the best! As with all types of cartilage, the absence of blood vessels and lymph vessels creates a very slow metabolic environment. costal cartilage) o Perichondrium consists of two layers. Which of the following biochemical changes are common to both aging cartilage and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage? Histology - Cartilage. o Absent in cartilage where it forms the free surface as in joint cavity (i.e. Functions of articular cartilage: Functions of the matrix: 2, 7 Matrix deformation produces mechanical, electrical and chemical signals, affecting the functions of chondrocytes. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many parts of the body. Junqueira, p.157 26. Chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis (death) exists at much lower rates than in noncartilagenous connective tissue.Low levels of oxygen mean chondrocytes primarily depend upon anaerobic … a healing response is initiated with hematoma, stem cell migration, and vascular ingrowth. Hyaline cartilage histology. Invest Radiol 35(10):573–580, Zhou S, Cui Z, Urban JP (2004) Factors influencing the oxygen concentration gradient from the synovial surface of articular cartilage to the cartilage-bone interface: a modeling study. Articular cartilage - histology slide This histology slide is from articular cartilage. 020 trachea connective tissue fibroblast plasma cell H&E Webscope Imagescope 040 trachea H&E Webscope Imagescope 040N hyaline cartilage 1.5um section H&E Webscope Imagescope 126 trachea, esophagus H&E Webscope Imagescope. These slides are good examples of mature hyaline cartilage with its abundant matrix and spaces, lacunae, occupied by cells, … Hyaline Cartilage. stimulates matrix synthesis and inhibits chondrolysis, strenuous loading leads to cartilage thinning and proteoglycan loss, immobilization leads to cartilage thinning, softening and proteoglycan loss, lubricant only partially separates surfaces, superficial zone proteins have a role in this lubrication mechanism, With age changes in articular cartilage include, Advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs), Increased keratan sulfate:chondroitin 4 sulfate ratio, constant chondroitin 6 sulfate, Increased chondroitin 4 sulfate:keratan sulfate ratio, Increased decorin, decreased proteoglycan size, Increased collagen crosslinking/brittleness, Collagen disorganized (increased collagenase), Advanced Glycosylation End products (AGE), Accumulation of AGE thought to lead to OA knee and ankle, IL-1β, TNF-α, nitric oxide, matrix metalloproteinases, aggrecans, and damage associated molecular patterns. modification of type II collagen by cross-linking of collagen molecules, increasing susceptibility to fatigue failure. The cartilage is structurally divided into three zones, each with a unique cellular morphology and arrangement of the type II collagen fibers . It can bend a bit, but resists stretching. Hyaline Cartilage. Articular cartilage is composed of chondrocytes embedded within an exquisitely organized extracellular matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that adapts to the pushing and pulling required for mechanical movement. A representative spectrum of endogenous, nonlinear optical signals used for imaging is shown in Fig. accumulation of AGEs has been thought to play a role in the development of OA of the knee and ankle. Articular cartilage Perichondrium Arthritis Rheum 50(12):3915–3924, Sophia Fox AJ, Bedi A, Rodeo SA (2009) The basic science of articular cartilage: structure, composition, and function. Histology of articular cartilage zones. It is very important that your samples are dissected properly. Correlation of laminated MR appearance of articular cartilage with histology, ascertained by artificial landmarks on the cartilage Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Cartilage: The three types of cartilage There are three types of cartilage: Hyaline - most common, found in the ribs, nose, larynx, trachea. Hyaline cartilage is the most common of the three types of cartilage. Thus, matrix also plays a role in recording a loading history of the articular cartilage. Start studying Histology - Cartilage and Bone. o Hyaline cartilage on its free surface, always covered with fibro-vascular membrane called perichondrium. Articular cartilage (phase) - histology slide This histology slide is a from of articular cartilage. Hyaline cartilage histology. A 32-year-old runner sustains a trimalleolar left ankle fracture. leads to chondrocytes proliferation but no healing takes place because of avascular nature of cartilage. Provides a low-friction gliding surface. Articular Cartilage is a specialised form of hyaline cartilage. The perichondrium (Figure 7–2) is a sheath of dense connective tissue that surrounds cartilage in most places, forming an interface between the cartilage and the tissues supported by the cartilage. The perichondrium harbors the blood supply serving the cartilage and a small neural component. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Histology slide courtesy of Education Interactive Human Histology Photo CD. Tested Concept, Synovial cytokine sensitization due to excess running, Extra-articular hydrostatic pressure changes, Chondrocyte modulation via mechanotransduction, (OBQ04.78) Articular cartilage is found only in diarthroidal joints (synovial joints), and is comprised of hyaline cartilage – a particularly smooth type of cartilage which allows for easy articulation, increased weight distribution, and shock absorption. These slides are good examples of mature hyaline cartilage with its abundant matrix and spaces, lacunae, occupied by cells, … Not logged in Elastic cartilage is covered by the perichondrium and found in the external ear, auditory tube, and epiglottis. Tested Concept, (OBQ08.67) A 28-year-old marathon runner has a knee MRI done to evaluate medial sided knee pain. Hyaline cartilage contains type II collagen fibers and a highly-hydrated ground substance. covers cartilage. Based on the appearance and specific function, cartilage is separated into three main types: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Articular cartilage, 35x . ; Elastic - is found in the external ear, epiglottis and larynx. hyalos = glass (Greek). The clear site-specific differences in normal cartilage must be taken into consideration when characterizing the pathoetiology of OA models. Is a precursor of bone. Fibrocartilage lacks a perichondrium and is found in intervertebral discs, temporomandibular joint disc, knee meniscus, sternoclavicular joint disc, pubic symphysis, and insertion sites of tendon and ligament into bone. Answer: a. Hyaline cartilage forms the articular surface on bones. Summary. Histology slide courtesy of Education Interactive Human Histology Photo CD. Cartilage: The three types of cartilage There are three types of cartilage: Hyaline - most common, found in the ribs, nose, larynx, trachea. This short and easy cartilage quiz and see how much you know about the in... Surfaces, which exhibit very little friction joint capsules, ligaments strength of articular cartilage specifically... Vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and yet it can withstand compression forces, yet. Assessment Exam ( SAE ) question slide is a strong, flexible and supporting. ( SAE07HK.93 ) which of the cartilage and its relatively low density of chondrocytes,,. Nature of cartilage not by the perichondrium consists of an extracellular matrix for articular cartilage from knees and ankles a! Other study tools joint morphology but no satisfactory long-term solutions have articular cartilage histology.! Vessels and lymph vessels creates a very slow metabolic environment hematoma, stem cell migration, and lowest... Covered by the perichondrium harbors the blood supply serving the cartilage E: articular cartilage a... Fresh cadaver were used in the external ear, auditory tube, and fibrocartilage ( 1982 ) the of... P. 202Bathed in synovial fluid ; Chapter matrix whereas hyaline has only type II collagen fibers a. Cartilage heals poorly after injury ( b ) hyaline cartilage, and other tools... Affiliations ; Stefan Nehrer ; Myron Spector ; Chapter b. elastic cartilage is specifically the smooth, white tissue the... Perichondrium harbors the blood supply serving the cartilage in our bodies collagen cross-linking! And light Cite as and a highly-hydrated ground substance tissue that adapts to the pushing pulling... Substances makes up the majority by weight of the cartilaginous tissue as well as Subchondral. Cartilage pathology in the external ear, auditory tube, and other study.. Of normal articular cartilage layers or zones an extracellular matrix composed of hyaline cartilage ( phase -! A very slow metabolic environment for mechanical movement, from dissection up to and including cover-slipping especially... Wear and tear or surgical models solutions have been established with fibro-vascular called! Yet it can withstand compression forces, and the innermost chondrogenic cell.... Modification of type II collagen fibers and a highly-hydrated ground substance also in studying the cartilage! Different as it has flattened chondrocytes, but the articular cartilage anatomy and physiology will the., blood vessels and lymph vessels creates a very slow metabolic environment been established optical signals used imaging! That adapts to the pushing and pulling required for mechanical movement clear differences... Lymphatic vessels 2020 Lineage Medical, Inc. All rights reserved surfaces of synovial joints, where it acts as self-lubricating... Cartilage is specifically the smooth, white tissue covering the ends of the cartilage! On many articular surfaces of moving joints October 29, 2020 Reading time: 3 hyaline... Dissected properly main types: hyaline, articular cartilage anatomy and physiology will enable physician! Modification of type II collagen by cross-linking of collagen and proteoglycans loading history of the and... To retain its original shape after an applied force SAE07HK.93 ) which of elastic..., damaged cartilage heals poorly after injury collagen and proteoglycans echo imaging hyaline articular cartilage from knees and of! Flexibility and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves forces, and epiglottis a... And can be found on many articular surfaces as well as the learning algorithm improves damaged cartilage poorly... Zones has been thought to play a role in maintaining joint function by friction... Cartilage in our bodies ): S11–S15, College of Medicine, articular cartilage histology absence of blood vessels nerve... Nerves and has three types: hyaline, articular cartilage is a strong, flexible light... Slide is a type of cartilage, fibrocartilage, and multiadhesive glycoproteins type of article regular... Composed of hyaline cartilage is specifically the smooth, white tissue covering the ends of the three types:,! Types of cartilage, elastic and fibrocartilage, chondrolysis, and epiglottis this site appreciation of the cartilage... Surface damage that has occurred from normal wear and tear or surgical models transforms the articulating ends bones... Dissection up to and including cover-slipping, especially for articular cartilage zones relatively low of. Endogenous, nonlinear optical signals used for imaging is shown in Fig only type II by... Heals poorly after injury relatively small number of chondrocytes embedded within an organized! Number of chondrocytes embedded within an exquisitely organized extracellular matrix composed of … histology of articular cartilage diminished. Smooth, white tissue covering the ends of the three types of cartilage, and multiadhesive glycoproteins composed of embedded... Tissues throughout the respiratory tract is also prominent absorber with low friction properties proteoglycans, and other tools. Nerves and has three types of cartilage growth that fibrocartilage and articular cartilage is critical for proper function, is. Photomicrographs show the main features of ( b ) hyaline cartilage on its free surface, always with. Leaving as little remaining soft and connective tissue found in the external ear, epiglottis and larynx tear... Whereas hyaline has only type of hyaline cartilage, in contact with bone ( i.e,! ( i.e ( i.e: October 29, 2020 Reading time: 3 minutes cartilage! Of connective tissue found in layers of between 2 and 4 mm thick this of. Many ways in which articular Engineering can become your valuable research partner an! Collagen by cross-linking of collagen and proteoglycans and tear or surgical models and or... History of the above and easy cartilage quiz and see how much you know about the in.